these children have died. Today 21 percent die. Another important the excess of live births over the number of desired children is ur the ineffectiveness, difficulty, and hardship of preventing birth methods now available to the people of the poor countries. This is argument for family planning programs; but even if these prog completely successful in eliminating unwanted births, the desired children in most less developed countries is so high that rapid growth would still occur. WHAT GOVERNMENTS ARE DOING The governments of developing countries are now adopting control policies at a rate and in a climate of world approval un even a few years ago. Among the nations that have officially decide family planning are Ceylon, People's Republic of China, Republi (Taiwan), India, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pi Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius Tunisia, Egypt, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Fi other countries at least the beginning of governmental interest anc visible: for example, Hong Kong, Dahomey, Gambia, Nigeria, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salv; dor, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela. The role of governments in reducing fertility is to exhort, ii provide; decisions and actions must be taken by individual coupl< accordance with their perceived interests. Even so, the governme large and difficult, requiring a high degree of organization, adequa and logistic support, great flexibility in meeting changing cond continuing objective evaluation of results. Only a small proportion of people in the less developed cou even moderately good knowledge of modern methods of family pi poor and the uneducated need to learn what the well-to-do and tl already know—that there are a number of safe, reliable, and simj limiting one's family. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is mucl the desire not to have more children. Another task of governments of developing countries is to fir how to bring about, and to help individual families to recognize in living conditions that lower the economic, social, and psychic b increase the costs of having more than two or three children. Rest needed to develop methods of fertility control that are easier ti *Berclson, Bernard, "The Present State of Family Planning Programs, sentccl at Conference on Technological Change and Population Growth at t Institute of Technology, May 1970.1969. Col. 4 calculated from cols. 1 and 2.